Freedom And Independence | Wolność i Niezawisłość | WiN

Freedom And Independence - Wolność i Niezawisłość, WiN
Polish Underground Soldiers 1944-1963 - The Untold Story

Freedom And Independence | Wolność i Niezawisłość | WiN
 

 

Doomed Soldiers News & Analysis

Untitled Document

Foundation "We Remember" - "Pamietamy"

Retired Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Senior Scientific Intelligence Officer S. Eugene (Gene) Poteat Analyses the April 10, 2010 Crash of Polish Air Force One TU-154M Near Smolensk, Russia: "Russian Image Management - The KGB’s latest intelligence coup, and NATO’s latest intelligence disaster".

Read It Here ...

Zolnierze Wykleci
Foundation "We Remember" - "Pamietamy"
Smolensk Crash News Digest.
Niepoprawni - Polish Political Blog
Memorial is wide-ranging and simultaneous scrupulous historical research of topics that were until recently inaccessible to Russian scholars: the GULag, the history of the security organizations VChK (the Cheka)-OGPU-NKVD-MGB-KGB, statistics on political repression in the Soviet Union, and dissidents' resistance during the Khrushchev-Brezhnev era. Memorial is a number of international research projects, in which internationally recognized research centers in the humanities acts as partners. It is a support program for young researchers throughout Russia. It is the struggle for free access to historical information, to the past, which was hidden from us for so long.

 

 

 

 

 

Doomed Soldiers In Polish

Freedom And Independence - Zrzeszenie Wolność i Niezawisłość WiN

A Historical Brief Part 2:

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4

Captain Kazimierz Kamieńsk - Freedom and Independence - Wolnosc i Niezawislosc - WiN

 

Left: Captain Kazimierz Kamieński, nom de guerre "Huzar". “Huzar” was one of the most legendary and accomplished commanding resistance officers in the Białostok area. His units conducted many successful operations against UB and KBW (pol. abr. Korpus Bezpieczenstwa Wewnetrznego – Internal Security Corps). In May 1947, his unit became part of the VI Wilno Brigade that was led by Captain "Młot". After Młot’s" death, “Huzar” took over command of the brigade. He fought until August 1952. During this entire period his unit was very active, conducting many operations – primarily liquidating communist functionaries, and snitches. Even in the beginning of 1951, his unit still had around 30 soldiers. His unit was destroyed as a result of double play conducted by Polish secret police, the UB. “Huzar” and several of his soldiers were lured to Warsaw where they were arrested. Captain “Huzar” was sentenced to death and murdered on October 24, 1953 in the prison in Białystok.

The WiN units remained active despite the appeals of Col. Rzepecki to out themselves. Franciszek Niepokólczycki “Halny” further re-defined the relationship of WiN with the Government of the Republic of Poland in Exile and recognized its legal right to oversee it in Poland. At this junction he decided to broaden the intelligence activities in support of the General Staff of the Commander-in-Chief of the Republic of Poland in London. The central intelligence net was based on the autonomous cells of the Brygady Wywiadowcze with support from numerous local intelligence cells in the field. Special operations were also conducted among them:

Operation "Ż" - Propaganda operations against members of the communist Polish People’s Army (abr. LWP – Ludowe Wojsko Polskie);

Operation “B” - initiated already during the existence of the DSZ;

Operation “O” - (“Odpluskwianie” - (“fumigating the cockroaches” – or “Debugging”).

The Operation "Ż" was directed by the commanding officer, of the Tarnobrzeg Inspectorate, of the Home Army during 1940-1944, Walerian Tumanowicz, nom de guerre "Jagodziński”. This operation lasted until 1946 and ended on orders of Col. Niepokólczycki. The Operation “O” led by Wiktor Langner, nom de guerre "Szydłowski" began in spring 1946 before the referendum, which took place on July 30, 1946. The goal of the Operation “O” was to confuse the ranks of the communist PPR (pol. abr. Polska Partia Robotnicza - Polish Workers’ Party) and UB, through warnings sent to particularly “devoted” members of the UB, by publically revealing their identities to the local populations, or by planting false information in the UB offices.

Probably 1948. The VI Wilno Brigade of Home Army. Soldiers from the partisan units commanded by Kazimierz Kamieński, nom de guerre "Huzar" and Władysław Łukasiuk, nom de guerre "Młot".

 

Left: Probably 1948. The VI Wilno Brigade of Home Army. Soldiers from the partisan units commanded by Kazimierz Kamieński, nom de guerre "Huzar" and Władysław Łukasiuk, nom de guerre "Młot".

In the beginning, the leadership of WiN had hoped that during the encouraging year of 1946 there would be a chance to legalize it. It was reflected in the publication of a populist "Kwestionariusz programu ruchu WiN" (“A questionnaire of the association WiN”), prepared at the turn of 1945/46, in the hopeful spirit of the anticipated elections in 1946.

As a part of its political power play leading to the referendum, the WiN appealed to the populous to tactically vote for points 1, 2, and 3 (these referendum points concerned the Poland’s Western boarders). The anticipated results were to bring WiN considerable public support. The political agitation prior to the referendum emphasized WiN’s positive relationship with the agrarian Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (eng. Polish People’s Party). During 1946, Lt. Col. Kwieciński, head of the Area “Center”, co-founded the Komitet Porozumiewawczy Organizacji Demokratycznych Polski Podziemnej [KPODPP] (eng. Consultative Committee of the Democratic Organizations of the Polish Underground). The referendum that was falsified by the Communists ruined any hopes for the democratic elections and necessitated the change in political goals of WiN.

After June 1946, a new emphasis on informing international public opinion about Poland’s fate began.

Captain Witold Pilecki, nom de guerre “Witold”

 

Photo: Standing from left are: Stanisław Roszkowski, nom de guerre "Tarzan", Witold Buczak, nom de guerre "Ponury", Lucjan Niemyjski, nom de guerre "Krakus" -commanding officer of the patrol group in the unit of "Huzar". “Krakus” committed suicide on August 22, 1952 while being encircled by the tactical group of the UB. Franciszek Łapiński "Szwed", who was severely wounded during operation against tactical units of UB/KBW/MO on December 24, 1947, was finished off with communists’ bayonets.

The goal of informing international public opinion was to be propagated by the creation of the “Memoriał do Rady Bezpieczeństwa ONZ" (eng. “The brief for the Security Council of the United Nations”), that cited the content of Article 34 of the Charter of the United Nations. “The Brief”, prepared primarily by Lt. Col. Wacław Lipiński and approved by the KPODPP, was then published and affirmed with the seals of the Biuro Studiów przy II ZG WiN w Krakowie (eng. Bureau of Studies with II Executive Office of WiN in Krakow). It was signed and approved by the Polski Ruch Oporu (eng. Polish Resistance Movement). In addition to the “Brief”, the leadership of WiN” also created an appeal to the International Tribunal in Hague, sent a letter to the President of the United States, Harry S. Trumann, and to the Chairman of the Polish American Congress, Mr. Bozmarek.

The delivery of these documents to their recipients abroad was assigned to special emissaries sent simultaneously from Poland, by Niepokólczycki:

1 - Col. Kazimierz Rolewicz, Zbigniew Solski, "Olgierd", "Kama", "Zbyszek", who was a former Chief of the Bureau of Information and Propaganda (BiP) of the Home Army for Krakow during 1941-1945;
2 - Wacław Bniński, "Wioślarz", "Key", who left for this mission from Krakow on August 10, 1946.

Simultaneously, another group of couriers from Łukasz Ciepliński’s organization were sent as well. They were:

1 - Lt. Col. Józef Maciołek, "Żuraw", "Kazimierz", "Marian", "Roch", who was a former commandant of the Sub-District of the Home Army Rzeszow “South” during 1944-1945, and then present Deputy-Chairman of the Area “South” of WiN, and Chief of the “Stomil” cell;
2 - Stefan Roztworowski "Ignacy”.

Both men reached England in the beginning of September 1946. The mission of Lt. Col. Maciołek was to organize the Delegatura Zagraniczna WiN (eng. WiN's Representative Foreign Office). This office was functioning until 1953.

The WiN soldiers carried various weapons. The most popular weapons among the Democratic Resistance soldiers of the Post-World War II underground were the German Stag44, 7.92 cal., as well as Soviet PPSz-41, PPS-43.

Photo above: The WiN soldiers carried various weapons. The most popular weapons used by the Democratic Resistance soldiers of the Post-World War II underground were the German Stag44, 7.92 cal., as well as Soviet PPSz-41, PPS-43. This photo shows the self-defense field unit of AKO-WiN Company “Szumowo” in the Zambrów District. This unit was commanded by Corporal Eugeniusz Ogrodnik, nom de guerre “Stal”. This unit was active until 1947.

Early spring in 1946. WiN partisan unit in training near Tybiry Uszyńskie and Tybory Olszewo villages. The exercises are overlooked by Sec. Lt. Eugeniusz Godlewski, nom de guerre "Topór", who is standing next to his unit.

 

Photo: Early spring in 1946. WiN partisan unit in training near Tybiry Uszyńskie and Tybory Olszewo villages. The military exercises in the photo are being overlooked by Sec. Lt. Eugeniusz Godlewski, nom de guerre "Topór", who is standing next to his unit.

As a result of penetration of WiN structures by Polish secret police, in the Tarnow area at the end of August 1946, Edward Bzymek-Strzałkowski, who headed the Brygady Wywiadowcze (eng. Intelligence Brigades) was arrested. He attempted to commit suicide by jumping from the window of the WUBP (pol. abr. Wojewodzki Urzad Bezpieczenstwa Publicznego - Voivodeship Office of Public Security) building in Krakow, but was saved by doctors and subsequently subjected to horrible tortures.

The further arrests were only a question of time. This ultimately led to the destruction of the II ZG WiN ( eng. II Main Office of WiN) in the Górny and Dolny Śląsku areas. The secret police also discovered several underground publications published by WiN. As a result of a large-scale manhunt operations conducted by the UB, Franciszek Niepokólczycki, who for this reason wasn’t involved in conspiratorial activities since summer 1946, was arrested in Zabrze on October 22, 1947. During this period, his functions were carried out by Łukasz Ciepliński, nom de guerre "Ostrowski", who spearheaded the WiN’s Area “South”. The trial of the leadership of the II ZG WiN, who were tried along with several members form the PSL, took place between August 11 and September 10 in Krakow. The communist courts dealt mercilessly with the accused, sentencing Niepokólczycki, Tumanowicz, Kaczmarczyk, Ostafin, Bzymek-Strzałkowski, Kot, and Langner to death.

1950. Kazimierz Kamieński, nom de guerre "Huzar" [left] and Sergeant Eugeniusz Tymiński, nom de guerre "Ryś",of AK-AKO-WiN in the “Huzar’s” unit. During 1950-1951, "Ryś" commanded independent patrol unit. He perished while covering retreat of his soldiers near the village Żachy Nowe in the Wysokie Mazowieckie County.

 

Photo: 1950. Kazimierz Kamieński, nom de guerre "Huzar" [left] and Sergeant Eugeniusz Tymiński, nom de guerre "Ryś” of AK-AKO-WiN in the “Huzar’s” unit. During 1950-1951, "Ryś" commanded an independent patrol unit. He perished while covering retreat of his soldiers near the village Żachy Nowe in the Wysokie Mazowieckie County.

The destruction of the II Executive Office didn’t mean the end of the WiN. In autumn, 1946, an attempt to re-establish a nation-wide WiN organization was undertaken by Lt. Col. Wincenty Kwieciński, nom de guerre "Głóg". Kwieciński was a Chairman of the Area “Center”, and was one of the co-creators of the KPODPP. He didn’t manage to secure the newly emerging structures however, because as early as December 1946, and January 1947, a wave of arrests swept through both the new III Executive office of WiN as well within the ranks of KPODPP.

On December 6, 1946, the secret police arrested Adam Obarski, representing the Niezależna PPS (eng. “Independent Polish Socialist Party), followed by the arrest of Halina Sosnowska, who led the intelligence cell of the III Executive Office, and the Area “Center” of WiN.

On Janurary 5, 1947 arrested were also Wincenty Kwieciński, and two of his second in command: Lt. Col. Stanisław Sędziak, nom de guerre "Wiatr", arrested on January 4th, and Kazimierz Czarnocki, nom de guerre “Kazik”, who was later accused of working for the UB. Arrested along with Czarnocki were Lt. Col. W. Lipiński (representing the Stronnictwo Niezawisłości Narodowej - eng. Association National Freedom) and Włodzimierz Marszewski (representing the Stronnictwo Narodowe – National Party), who was arrested on January 7th.

Northern Mazowsze area in 1946. Soldiers from the Wiktor Zacheusz Nowowiejski, nom de guerre "Jeż" unit.

Photo: Northern Mazowsze area in 1946. Soldiers from the Wiktor Zacheusz Nowowiejski, nom de guerre "Jeż" unit. (From left): Stanisław Borzuchowski "Niedźwiedź", Tadeusz Piotrowski "Zbyszek", Mieczysław Szczepkowski "Beton", Wiktor Zacheusz Nowowiejski "Jeż", kneeling is Mirosław Krajewski Wiesiek". "Jeż" was a teacher by profession, who fought against the Nazis since 1943 in the Armia Krajowa (AK) unit of Stefana Rudziński "Wiktor".

The unit conducted many successful operations against the Nazis. During Operation “Burza”, "Jeż" led a squad in the unit that had about 80 soldiers in its ranks. After the Soviet entry, he organized a self-defense unit that fought against communist terror.

On June 3, 1945, they destroyed the Polish secret police PUBP (pol. abr. Powiatowy Urzad Bezpieczenstwa Publicznego – County Office for Public Security) locale in Mława, and freed several dozen political prisoners. During the engagement, three UB functionaries died. In December 1945, the soldiers from "Jeż’s" unit, commanded by Edmund Morawski “Lipa”, freed 14 resistance soldiers form the MO (pol. abr. Milicja Obywatelska – People’s Militia) station in Chorzele. This unit disarmed the UB tactical groups several times. Among them, one in March 1946, near Chorzele. The apprehended UB-eks (derogatory name of Urzad Bezpieczenstwa functionaries) were disarmed, stripped of uniforms, and were let free. The Polish secret police, the UB, never returned the favor …

The destruction of the III ZG WiN was only a part of the communist terror campaign before the falsified elections to the Sejm (eng. Parliament) on January 19, 1947. The “success” of the “Bezpieka” and lack of the reaction from the West, dealt a severe blow to the morale of the entire Polish society. That in turn, aided the communists in bringing about a formal decree on February 22, 1947, giving “amnesty” to the partisan units hiding in the forests. Until April 25, 1947, about 23 thousands WiN members took advantage of the “benevolent amnesty”, and along with them numerous members of other resistance organizations. Its benefit to the secret police was two-fold: it meant a cessation of mass-scale partisan activities, and at the same time it allowed the “Bezpieka” to update their intelligence on the enemies of the state. The amount of the intelligence gathered was enormous! All together, around 75 thousand individuals, among them 25 thousand political prisoners, took advantage of the “amnesty”.

On December 6, 1946, "Jeż" was surrounded by a tactical group of UB / KBW unit near his native village of Zembrzuz, and after being wounded, committed suicide rather than allowing himself to be apprehended by the UB functionaries. Photo taken by Polish secret police, the UB.  
Above: On December 6, 1946, "Jeż" was surrounded by a tactical group of UB / KBW unit near his native village of Zembrzuz, and after being wounded, committed suicide rather than allowing himself to be apprehended by the UB functionaries. Photo taken by Polish secret police, the UB.
"Jeż", standing fourth from left is holding an MP 40 sub-machine gun.
Above: "Jeż", standing fourth from left is holding an MP 40 sub-machine gun.
Officer Cadet Leon Suszyński, nom de guerre(s) "P-8", "Litwin" was active in the resistance since the First Soviet Occupation.
Above: Officer Cadet Leon Suszyński, nom de guerre(s) "P-8", "Litwin" was active in the resistance since the First Soviet Occupation. He was a soldier in the “grupa dyspozycyjna” (eng. Special Availability Group) of the Inspectorate Bialystok of the Home Army, the so-called “Egzekutywa”. During 1943-1944, in the UBK-AK (1st Company III/77 Infantry Regiment of AK). In 1945, he led the "Słucz" platoon in the concentration of partisan units of the AKO "Piotrków" in Puszcza Knyszyńska. Later, until 1947, he commanded an independent WiN partisan unit operating primarily in the Białystok and Sokółka. He had a very good reputation among inhabitants of the local villages and the resistance soldiers alike. After outing himself, “Litwin” was arrested and sentenced to many years of imprisonment.
 

The year 1947, was also marked by numerous show trials of the captured WiN leaders. Among them:

- January 4 to February 3 - The trial of Rzepecki and his group;

- August 11 to September 10 in Krakow - the trial of Niepokólczycki, his co-conspirators, and PSL activists;

- December 3 to December 27 in Warsaw - the trial of Kwieciński, Lipiński and their colleagues from WiN and KPODPP.

Similar trials of members of local WiN organizations took place outside of larger city centers as well. Their goal was to compromise the ideals shared by the accused - a goal achieved by the communists in the case against Rzepecki. While the line of the “murderous cooperation of WiN with the PSL” was continuously promoted by the Communists throughout these trials, the frightened inhabitants of villages, were looking through their windows asking themselves: Are the people on the outskirts of our village, the Communist People’s Army, the People’s Militia, or the “Boys from the forest”?

During these terrible times it was extremely difficult for the villagers to discern who “they” were? The People’s Militia didn’t have their own uniforms yet - they appeared only in 1947. Until this time, the members of the Communist People’s Militia looked just like the partisans. Often, they looked worse, since they wore leftover uniforms and often wore Nazi pants, as these were the only ones not in short supply. The partisans who went to conduct military operations would wear white-and-red armbands with an “MO” (pol. abr. Milicja Obywatelska - People’s Militia) letters, confusing the communists even more. The situation with weapons was quite similar.

Both partisans as well as the MO functionaries were carrying practically identical weapons. Often, each side would commandeer weapons from each other. The weapons were primarily the Soviet-made “Pepesha” (pol. nickname for PPSh - Pistolet-Pulemyot Shpagina; rus: Пистолет-пулемёт Шпагина; " Shpagin machine pistol"), or German MP-40 (ger. abr. Maschinenpistole - "Machine Pistol") and the Stg-44s (Sturmgewehr 44 or "assault rifle model 1944").

The most commonly used rifles were Mosin-Nagants (rus: Винтовка Мосина - Vintovka Mosina) and Mausers.

The most often used machine guns were primarily the Soviet-made DP (Пулемёт Дегтярёвa Пехотный - Pulemyot Degtyaryova Pekhotny - Degtyaryov's infantry machine gun), and German-made MG-34s (ger. Maschinengewehr 34 - “machine gun 34”) or MG-42s (ger. Maschinengewehr 42 - "machine gun 42"). Less frequently used were British Brens.

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4

 

 

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