Freedom And Independence | Wolność i Niezawisłość | WiN

Freedom And Independence - Wolność i Niezawisłość, WiN
Polish Underground Soldiers 1944-1963 - The Untold Story

Freedom And Independence | Wolność i Niezawisłość | WiN
 

 

Doomed Soldiers News & Analysis

Untitled Document

Foundation "We Remember" - "Pamietamy"

Retired Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Senior Scientific Intelligence Officer S. Eugene (Gene) Poteat Analyses the April 10, 2010 Crash of Polish Air Force One TU-154M Near Smolensk, Russia: "Russian Image Management - The KGB’s latest intelligence coup, and NATO’s latest intelligence disaster".

Read It Here ...

Zolnierze Wykleci
Foundation "We Remember" - "Pamietamy"
Smolensk Crash News Digest.
Niepoprawni - Polish Political Blog
Memorial is wide-ranging and simultaneous scrupulous historical research of topics that were until recently inaccessible to Russian scholars: the GULag, the history of the security organizations VChK (the Cheka)-OGPU-NKVD-MGB-KGB, statistics on political repression in the Soviet Union, and dissidents' resistance during the Khrushchev-Brezhnev era. Memorial is a number of international research projects, in which internationally recognized research centers in the humanities acts as partners. It is a support program for young researchers throughout Russia. It is the struggle for free access to historical information, to the past, which was hidden from us for so long.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doomed Soldiers In Polish

Freedom And Independence - Zrzeszenie Wolność i Niezawisłość WiN

A Historical Brief Part 4:

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4

After the 1947 “amnesty”, the WiN was gradually losing contact with smaller partisan units remaining in the field. Fearing the penetration by the communist “kontrpartyzantka”, the WiN was leery of reestablishing these contacts. After the destruction of the national leadership of the Nationalist resistance, we can also observe a gradual assimilation of WiN’s banner, by some of the Narodowe Siły Zbrojne (NSZ) units. With no exceptions, the fate of all of these units was particularly tragic. The soldiers held up in the forests, particularly in the areas of Lublin, Białostok, Podlasie, in some areas of the Mazowsze, as well at the outskirts of Lublin and Rzeszow voivodeships. Some of them remained in the forests well into the 50’s. They were unceasingly hunted, devastated by betrayals of their closest comrades in arms, blackmailed through repressions of their families, and at times, betrayed even by their own family members.

By then, all that was left to fight for, were their own lives …

October 1951. The PUBP (pol. abr. Powiatowy Urzad Bezpieczenstwa Publicznego – County Office for Public Security) courtyard in Włodawa. Photo taken by Polish secret police, the UB. Laing down are the dead Kazimierz Torbicz, nom de guerre "Kazik" and Edward Taraszkiewicz, nom de guerre "Żelazny". In the center, wearing torn by the police dogs clothes, is Stanisław Marciniak, nom de guerre "Niewinny". Prior to the communist amnesty in 1947 he was a soldier in the Józef Strug, nom de guerre "Ordona unit. He was sentenced to death and murdered at the Lublin Castle on January 29, 1953.

Above: October 1951. The PUBP (pol. abr. Powiatowy Urzad Bezpieczenstwa Publicznego - County Office for Public Security) courtyard in Włodawa. Photo taken by Polish secret police, the UB. Laying down are the dead Kazimierz Torbicz, nom de guerre "Kazik" and Edward Taraszkiewicz, nom de guerre "Żelazny". In the center, wearing clothes torn by police dogs, is Stanisław Marciniak, nom de guerre "Niewinny". Prior to the communist amnesty in 1947, he was a soldier in the Józef Strug, nom de guerre "Ordon" unit. He was sentenced to death and was murdered at the Lublin Castle on January 29, 1953.

[Translator's Note: To learn more about Edward Taraszkiewicz, nom de guerre "Żelazny", and his unit, please see: "Assault on Włodawa October 22, 1946" by Grzegorz Makus]

During 1948-1952, some of the units, i.e. the “Huzar’s” unit, were subject to agent provocateur operations instigated by the MBP (pol. abr. Ministerstwo Bezpieczenstwa Publicznego – Ministry of Public Security) and conducted as a part of the Operation “Cezary”. At the end of the road, all that was left was a lonely fight, a death, or inhuman interrogations. The only alternative was suicide, or saving ones life by betraying others … The WiN partisans were still hunted until the end of 1950’s. On Janurary 21, 1956, the Bezpieka captured Stefan Kobos, nom de guerre “Wrzos” who lead the WiN District in the Tomaszow. During the fight with the UB functionaries on March 3, 1957, Sec. Lieutenant Stanisław Marchewka, nom de guerre "Ryba" was killed. Marchewka, was a friend and subordinate of “Bruzda”. Finally, Józef Franczak, nom de guerre "Lalek", once a soldier in the “Uskok’s” unit, fell in combat on October 21, 1963. And so it was, the last skirmish between the WiN Democratic Underground resistance units and the communists …

Summer 1946. WiN partisans from Bolesław Mikus "Żbik" platoon from Major “Orlik’s” unit

Above: Summer 1946. WiN partisans from Bolesław Mikus "Żbik" platoon of Major “Orlik’s” unit.
Reverend Wojciech Lorenc and Stanisław Niemiec, an undertaker, with an arms cache discovered by the UB in the attic of the church in Tryńcza on May 25, 1949.
Above: Reverend Wojciech Lorenc and Stanisław Niemiec, an undertaker, standing next to the arms cache discovered by the UB in the attic of the church in Tryńcza on May 25, 1949.
Sec. Lieutenant Tadeusz Pleśniak, nom de guerre(s) "Żbik", “Gad", "Hanka", "Zośka".   Left: Sec. Lieutenant Tadeusz Pleśniak, nom de guerre(s) "Żbik", “Gad", "Hanka", "Zośka". Participant in the 1939 defensive war. From May 1940, he was a soldier in the ZWZ-AK.
In spring 1942 he was a Deputy Commandant of the Pruchnik Station (pol. Placówka Pruchnik) of the Home Army in the Jarosław District. He participated in the Operation “Burza”, and was in the ranks of the “Nie”-DSZ. In May 1945 Pleśniak readied two weapons repositories for the partisan units “Warta” from the Home Army Lwów District. He was active in WiN from September 1945, publishing the "Ku Wolności" (eng. “Towards Sovereignty”). Tadeusz Pleśniak directed propaganda operations of the WiN’s Rzeszów District. He was arrested by UB in on December 16, 1947. He was sentenced to death and murdered at the Lubomirskich Castle in Rzeszow on January 17, 1949.
1946. The communist terror often forced entire families to seek shelter in the forests. In the photo one of the countless examples: father and son, Stanisław and Bronisław Kuchnio were not the only members in their family who fought in the Maj. “Orlik’s” unit.   Left: 1946. The communist terror often forced entire families to seek shelter in the forests. In the photo one of the countless examples: father and son, Stanisław and Bronisław Kuchnio were not the only members in their family who fought in the Maj. “Orlik’s” unit.
Lt. "Żbik" after his arrest. Photo taken next to the weapons cache discovered by the UB in Wola Węgierska near Jarosław.

Above: Sec. Lt. "Żbik" after his arrest. Photo taken next to the weapons cache discovered by the UB in Wola Węgierska near Jarosław.

An arms store of the WiN Office in Przemyśl discovered by the UB. This depository was overlooked by Tomasz Czekierda, nom de guerre “Zawisza”.
Above: An arms store of the WiN Office in Przemyśl discovered by the UB. This depository had been overlooked by Tomasz Czekierda, nom de guerre “Zawisza”.
 
 
September 1946. Lasy Skaryszwskie near Wierzbica. Concentration of partisan units before their operation to free prisoners from communist jail in Radom. Włodzimierz Kozłowski, nom de guerre "Orion" who from 1946 was “Zagonczy’s” second in command for military affairs in the Związek Zbrojnej Konspiracji (abr. ZZK – Association of Military Conspiracy). He commanded very strong group of partisan units of ZZK that had several hundred men in its ranks. Włodzimierz Kozłowski died in 1947 under mysterious circumstances …
Above: September 1946. Lasy Skaryszwskie near Wierzbica. A concentration of partisan units before their operation to free prisoners from the communist jail in Radom. In the photo is Włodzimierz Kozłowski, nom de guerre "Orion" who from 1946 was “Zagonczy’s” second in command for the Military Affairs in the Związek Zbrojnej Konspiracji (abr. ZZK – Association of Military Conspiracy). He commanded a very strong group of ZZK partisan units that had several hundred men in its ranks. Włodzimierz Kozłowski died in 1947 under "mysterious circumstances" …
Major Marian Bernaciak, nom de guerre(s) “Orlik”, “Dymek” Left: Major Marian Bernaciak, nom de guerre(s) “Orlik”, “Dymek”. Participant in the 1939 defensive war. He became a Soviet prisoner of war during their attack on Włodzimierz Wołyński in 1939, and later escaped from the POW transport slated for the Soviet Gulag. From 1940, he was a soldier in the ZWZ-AK, and commanded the KEDYW’s Sub-Section “A” (Dęblin-Ryki) in the Puławy District of the Home Army. After his identity became known to the Nazi Gestapo, in autumn 1943, he took command of the partisan unit OP I/15 of the Home Army Infantry Regiment. “Orlik’s” unit conducted many successful operations against the Nazis. During Operation “Burza” his unit had around 300 soldiers in its ranks. He commanded the unit from March 1945, and from fall of that year he lead partisans from the WiN’s Puławy Inspectorate. At the end of 1945 his units had about 200 men, and in spring of 1946, it had about 160 soldiers.
His units conducted many operations against the communist apparatus of terror: on April 24, 1945 they destroyed the PUBP in Puławy freeing 107 political prisoners; on May 1, 1945 near Annówka, they destroyed the UB expeditionary force, killing 12 secret police functionaries, capturing 24 others. The captured men were disarmed, stripped of uniforms and released. On May 24, 1945, in Las Stocki, the “Orlik’s” partisans supported by the unit commanded by Czesław Szlendak, nom de guerre "Maks”, conducted one of the largest battles against the communist forces. The NKVD and UB expeditionary forces attacked about 170 partisans. The enemy forces had around 700 men and were supported by armored vehicles. After an all-day battle, “Orlik’s” men were victorious, leaving behind 64 NKVD and 10 UB men dead. Among those dead was the Head of the Lublin’s WUBP Section for Combating Banditism (pol. Wydział do Walki z Bandytyzmem) Henryk Dereszewicz, a close friend of the notorious torturer Adam Humer. The WiN lost 8 partisans. In Spring 1946, “Orlik” divided his unit into two sub-units: the first sub-unit was commanded by Zygmunt Wilczyński, nom de guerre "Żuk", and the other by Wacław Kuchnio, nom de guerre “Spokojny”. These units survived until the amnesty in 1947. Along with several men from his security detail, Maj. Bernaciak “Orlik” was encircled by the KBW unit near Piotrówka village. During an attempt to pierce through the encirclement, he was wounded, and chose to commit suicide rather than be tortured.

***

"My time is near. When they will be leading me out of my cell to die, my last words to my friends will be: I am happy that I will be murdered as a Catholic for my faith, as a Pole for my country, and as a human being [I will die] for justice and truth […] My last farewell will be only to you [my wife]. I believe that the Holy Mother will take my soul […] and I will continue to serve Her and report to Her about the tragedy of the Polish Nation - murdered by one [nation] and abandoned by the others". Lieutenant Colonel Łukasz Ciepliński, WiN, murdered by the communist regime on March 1, 1951, at the Mokotow Prison in Warsaw.

Gloria Victis!

Dr. Janusz Kurtyka, PhD, 1960-2010  

Written by Dr. Janusz Kurtyka, Ph.D., (b. August 13, 1960 - d. April 10, 2010, Smolensk, Russia), Praca Zbiorowa, "Żołnierze Wyklęci. Antykomunistyczne Podziemie Zbrojne po 1944 roku” [eng. Anti-Communist Armed Underground After 1944], Oficyna Wydawnicza Volumen, Warsaw 2002.

This Historical Brief is published here in accordance with the Greater Public Good Doctrine, and is a part of the "Fundacja Pamietamy" [1] and "Żołnierze Wyklęci - Zapomniani Bohaterowie" project.

[1] The primary goal of the Foundation "Pamietamy" is restoration of the proper social and historical place for the individuals who during second half of the 1940's and beginning of the 1950's undertook armed resistance against the communist regime in Poland. The goal of the foundation is to commemorate those who in the name of freedom and in the name of human dignity, laid on the altar of freedom their own personal and professional aspirations, their personal freedoms, and above all, their lives.

***

Recommended Further Reading: "The Zrzeszenie 'Wolność i Niezawisłość' In Documents"

The Zrzeszenie 'Wolność i Niezawisłość' In Documents", [pol. Zrzeszenie „Wolność i Niezawisłość” w dokumentach], consists of six volumes that constitute the most exhaustive source of information about the activities of WiN. Many facts, until recently falsified by the communist propaganda of the Polish People's Republic, are debunked and clearly analyzed. The introductory Volume I contains a preface written by the late President of the Republic of Poland in Exile, Honorable Ryszard Kaczorowski.

Volume I - (a) Outlines the political situation in Poland during 1939-1945, (b) the situation in Poland after the entrance of the Soviet Red Army in 1944 - prior to the disbandment of the Home Army in 1945 - and the Delegatura Sił Zbrojnych, in August 1945,(c) the establishment of WiN and its activities under the I-st, and II-nd Head Office.

Volume II - This volume contains documents related to the period between the June 30, 1946 Referendum, and the elections to Polish Parliament (Sejm) in February, 1947.

Volume III - Volume III contains documents related to the establishment and functioning of the IV-th Head Office of WiN, that is, the final period of activities of this organization.

Volume IV - Volume IV contains, until now, unknown documents related to the activities of the Delegatura Zagraniczna Zrzeszenia WiN (The Foreign Office of WiN), as well as the documents about the agent-of-influence V Head Office, penetrated and operated by Polish Communist secret police, the UB.

Volume V - Volume V provides an overview of military operations conducted by the post-Home Army units that became part of WiN; in particular in the Central Area, in Kielce, Lublin, and Bialystok Voivodeships. In addition to various documents related to these activities, other documents outlining an anticipated merger with the Lwów's Extraterritorial Area of WiN (Lwowski Eksterytorialy Okręg WiN) are also present.

Volume VI - Written by Andrzej Zagórski, and consisting of three parts, this volume is the most recent addition to this series. The first part contains court documents related to the four General Offices of WiN, while the second one, contains biographies of WiN's most prominent personalities appearing in all 6 volumes. In its entirety, it contains 600 original documents and detailed biographies.

Please visit the IPN's web site to learn more, or to order these publications. (IN POLISH)

Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4


Also See:


Communist Agent Provocateur Operations In Poland (Pol. "oddziały pozorowane"): Communist Active Measures and Propaganda Operations in Shaping the Negative Image of Poland’s Post-World War II Armed Resistance.

 

 

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